Transcatheter Mitral Valve Implantation in Degenerated Bioprosthetic Valves

      Highlights

      • The importance of the Heart Team for transcatheter mitral valve in valve procedures.
      • The importance of 3D echocardiography for transcatheter procedures.
      • The importance of CT imaging transcatheter mitral valve in valve procedures.
      The use of bioprosthetic valves for mitral valve disease has been increasingly popular with both patients and physicians, and current practice uses these valves for increasingly younger patients. However, these valves are known to degenerate over time. Historically, reoperation was the only recourse for a failing bioprosthetic valve. Today, however, percutaneous options exist with the use of transcatheter valve implantation. Determining candidacy for this less invasive option requires careful evaluation with echocardiography. This review is focused on the echocardiographic evaluation required pre-, intra-, and postprocedurally during transcatheter mitral valve insertion.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      2D (Two-dimensional), 3D (Three-dimensional), CT (Computed tomographic), EOA (Effective orifice area), LV (Left ventricular), LVOT (Left ventricular outflow tract), MV (Mitral valve), PLAX (Parasternal long-axis), PSAX (Parasternal short-axis), SHV (Surgical heart valve), TEE (Transesophageal echocardiography), TMVR (Transcatheter mitral valve replacement)
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