- •WRMSP in sonographers is highly prevalent and affects daily activities.
- •Sonographers' pain is more severe than that of peer employees.
- •The neck, shoulder, lower back, and hand are the most frequently affected regions.
- •Because of pain, sonographers more often seek medical evaluation and miss work days.
Abbreviations:BMI (Body mass index), CTS (Carpal tunnel syndrome), DASH (The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Outcome Measure), WRMSP (Work-related musculoskeletal pain)
- Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome and other work-related musculoskeletal problems in cardiac sonographers.J Occup Med. 1993; 35: 604-610
- Musculoskeletal pain in cardiac ultrasonographers: results of a random survey.J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1997; 10: 357-362
- The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among British Columbia sonographers.Appl Ergon. 2002; 33: 385-393
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Workplace.(Available at:)https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomicsDate accessed: May 13, 2019
- The nature, cause, and extent of occupational musculoskeletal injuries among sonographers.J Diagn Med Sonogr. 2004; 20: 317-325
- Work related musculoskeletal disorders in sonography.J Diagn Med Sonogr. 2017; 33: 354-369
- The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among diagnostic medical sonographers.J Diagn Med Sonogr. 1997; 13: 219-227
- Ergonomic recommendations and their role in cardiac sonography.Work. 2004; 22: 207-218
- Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) among registered diagnostic medical sonographers and vascular technologists.J Diagn Med Sonogr. 2009; 25: 287-299
- The prevalence of and risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders among sonographers in central China: a cross-sectional study.PLoS One. 2016; 11: e0163903
- Occupational health hazards of working in the interventional laboratory: a multisite case control study of physicians and allied staff.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015; 65: 820-826
- Occupational musculoskeletal pain in cardiac sonographers compared to peer employees: a multisite cross-sectional study.Echocardiography. 2016; 33: 1642-1647
- Development of the QuickDASH: comparison of three item-reduction approaches.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005; 87: 1038-1046
- The shortened disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (QuickDASH): validity and reliability based on responses within the full-length DASH.BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006; 7: 44
- The QuickDASH. DASH Outcome Measure.(Available at:)http://www.dash.iwh.on.ca/about-quickdashDate accessed: May 13, 2019
- The short-form McGill pain questionnaire.Pain. 1987; 30: 191-197
- Occupational health hazards to the ultrasonographer and their possible prevention.J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1997; 10: 363-366
- Sonographers and occupational overuse syndrome: cause, effect, and solutions.J Diagn Med Sonogr. 2001; 17: 312-320
- The nature, cause, and extent of occupational musculoskeletal injuries among sonographers: recommendations for treatment and prevention.J Diagn Med Sonogr. 2004; 20: 317-395
- Industry standards for the prevention of work related musculoskeletal disorders in sonography.J Diagn Med Sonogr. 2017; 33: 370-391
- Point-of-care ultrasonography.N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 749-757
- The effect of chair massage on muscular discomfort in cardiac sonographers: a pilot study.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010; 10: 50
Conflicts of Interest: This study was supported by a grant from Mayo Clinic.